Using the 3-argument form is helpful in applications such as cryptography.
== operator checks equality whereas
is operator checks for identity.
== does not tell us if a and b are pointing to the same object.
Now, we create a new list with the same contents as a.
Here, we can see that a and c while containing the same contents, point to two different objects.
==is for value equality. Use it when you would like to know if two objects have the same value.
isis for reference equality. Use it when you would like to know if two references refer to the same object.
None is an object. Hence, we should avoid using the equality operator,
==, to compare objects to
None. Instead, we use
None, 0, and empty strings/lists/dicts/tuples all evaluate to False. All other values are True.
For concatenating just two strings, the normal
+ operator is fine.
For more than two strings, we can perform concatenation more efficiently with the
For example, we have a class,
Animal, defined in another file,
animal.py, we can use them in another file like this:
The general format to import functions and class is this:
We can import all the functions in a module together. (not recommended)
__contains__ method will support the containment property in custom classes - usage of
Assuming the above method resides in a custom class called
Custom, when an instance is created, we are now able to use the
read, reads the file byte by byte.
readlinesreads file line by line